1) What is “in ovo” vaccination?
“In ovo” means “in the egg; in embryo.” “In ovo vaccination” means that the vaccine is injected directly into the egg.
2) What are the advantages of in ovo vaccination?
In ovo vaccination enables downstream process improvements in efficiencies such as high speed separation of chick and un-hatched eggs, rapid placement or reduced time from hatcher to farm, targeted precise therapeutic intervention and reduction of handling stress on the birds.
3) What is the Salmogenics™ vaccine?
It is a patented vaccine for Salmonella. Salmogenics stimulates an immune response in chickens produced from inoculated eggs to several intestinal pathogenic organisms that include various Salmonella strains and several wild strains of other frequent pathogenic bacteria.
4) Who will manufacture the Salmogenics vaccine?
The manufacturing of the vaccine will be with seasoned pharmaceutical vaccine manufacturers.
5) How many chickens will benefit from the Salmogenics vaccine?
Management estimates 40 billion chickens worldwide could benefit from Salmogenics.
6) How many people contract salmonella each year?
Approximately 1.3 billion humans, based upon industry statistics.
7) Does Salmogenics offer additional benefits to humans?
The Salmogenics vaccine improves the immune system of the fowl, improving the health and welfare of the bird and those that eat chicken. The birds will be healthier and experience increased weight gain and reduced mortality, a benefit for the poultry industry and for humans. Healthier chickens mean a healthier protein source.
8) What is Salmonella?
Salmonella is a scientific name for over 2,500 types of bacteria. The types are known to cause disease in humans, animals, and birds (especially poultry) worldwide. The bacteria is widespread and found mainly in the intestines of birds, reptiles and mammals. People can acquire the bacteria via a variety of different foods of animal origin. The illness it causes is called salmonellosis.
9) Specifically, as far as broiler weight, what are the benefits of using Salmogenics?
If you assume that all of the 40 billion broiler chickens in the world are injected with Salmogenics, then the following benefits can be calculated for broiler weight:
Poultry production is projected to rise the most among the meats over the next decade, as poultry is the most efficient feed-to-meat converter. Demand for poultry also remains strong because of its lower cost relative to beef and pork. Improved broiler performance indicates an average of a .126 pounds weight gain, with each bird in our trial studies weighing an average of 5.73 pounds at the end of 49 days.
Citing USDA composite prices based on whole carcass weight, the National Chicken Council reported earlier that, price per pound, from 2002 to 2012:
Wholesale prices have increased from 53 cents to 93 cents
Retail prices have increased from $1.07 to $1.33
The .126 pound weight gain per bird, as reported in the study, would have an increased yield to the poultry industry and to the consumer. (.126 pounds x 40 billion estimated chickens worldwide = 5,040,000,000 pounds x 93 cents per pound = $4,687,200,000 additional revenue to the poultry industry worldwide, or $1,171,800,000 in the U.S. alone.)
10) What are the benefits of using Salmogenics as far as broiler mortality?
Our study indicates mortality rate dropping from 3.281% to 1.406% with the use of Salmogenics, a 57% improvement.
If Salmogenics were to be used on the estimated 40 billion chickens worldwide, 750,000,000 (40 billion x 3.281% lost chickens to the industry because of no injections = 1,312,400,000; if vaccinated with Salmogenics, 40 billion x 1.406% = 562,400,000 lost chickens to industry; 1,312,400,000 – 562,400,000 = 750,000,000) additional chickens would be saved due to the reduction in mortality. Multiplying this number by the 5.73 pounds of weight per bird as indicated by our study equals 4,297,500,000 more pounds of chicken available on the market. This additional available chicken equates to $3,996,675,000, based on USDA-cited wholesale prices. Added to the $4,687,200,000, as outlined in the previous paragraph, this total increases to a potential $8,683,875,000 additional revenue to the poultry industry.
11) What are the specifics for the study mentioned in #9 and #10 above?
In 1996, a 49-day trial study was conducted on 5,120 Ross chickens injected in-ovo at 17 days of embryonic stage and kept in raised wire pens of 5 x 10 feet at a 0.82 ft2/bird density. The studies indicate improved broiler performance compared to controls when broilers are reared in relatively clean, non-stress conditions settings of battery cages, enough to warrant further research to sustain performance claims, with a feed conversion rate of .039%. Further studies will be conducted to determine the levels of enhancement that Salmogenics could produce in injected broilers.